Accepted to CHES 2023 conference
In this paper, FortifyIQ introduces Carry-based Differential Power Analysis (CDPA), a novel methodology that allows for attacking schemes involving arithmetical addition. This methodology is applied to what is believed to be the first published full-fledged attack on HMAC-SHA-2 which does not require a profiling stage.
Side-channel attacks pose a threat to cryptographic algorithms. HMAC is an important use case of a hash function, in which the input is partially secret and thus unknown to the attacker. Despite a few publications that discuss applications of power analysis techniques to attack HMAC-SHA-2, this is the first generic method that shows a full attack on its hardware implementation.
A fundamental property of RAMBAM is a security parameter that along with other attributes of the scheme allows for making trade-offs between gate count, maximal frequency, performance, level of robustness to first-order and to higher-order side-channel attacks, and protection against SIFA-1. From this concept, FortifyIQ derives a family of protected hardware implementations of AES.